Duration of Viral Bronchitis - Feline Asthma - Investigation and TreatmentIs quite common for cats to present to veterinary clinics with a chronic cough or wheeze. The problem may be constant or just recur from time to time, and can range from mild to severe. Clinically the disease may resemble human asthma, but the term feline asthma can be misleading as there are a number of different possible causes. Here we look at what those underlying causes can be, and the different forms of treatment available to affected cats.
The PathologyLittle is known about the underlying causes or exacerbating factors in feline asthma. There may be an element of genetic predisposition. While chronic inhalation of airway irritants, such as smoking, has been shown to cause bronchitis in humans, this has not been studied in detail in cats. Likewise, allergens such as pollen, housedust mites, dander, fungal spores, dust and cat litter could all be implicated theoretically. The facts on Infectious Bronchitis contagion here have a consequential impact on your understanding on Infectious Bronchitis. This is because these facts are the basic and important points about Infectious Bronchitis.
The DifferentialsThere are a large number of possible diagnoses when a cat first presents with coughing or breathing difficulty. Here are some of the more important ones: The first impression is the best impression. We have written this article on Bronchitis in such a way that the first impression you get will definitely make you want to read more about it!
Spacer DevicesA spacer device consists of a chamber into which the aerosol drug is released at one end, with a mask at the other end which fits snugly over the cats mouth and nose. Onion and garlic: spice up the sick (e.g. Babyhaler) can be easily adapted for cats. Alternatively, veterinary spacers specifically designed for cats are now on the market (e.g. Aerokat). The spacer should be held over the cats nose and mouth for about 30 seconds to ensure complete delivery of the drugs. It should be remembered that aerosol steroid therapy can take up to 2 weeks to reach full effect, and if the cat has been on oral steroids previously, these should be phased out slowly during these initial 2 weeks. We do not mean to show some implication that Infectious Bronchitis have to rule the world or something like that. We only mean to let you know the actual meaning of Infectious Bronchitis!
- Treatment The aims of treatment are as follows. 1.
- Eliminate any suspected infectious agents.
- This may be a sufficiently long course of antibiotics if bacterial infection is suspected, or a wormer such as fenbendazole if lungworm is suspected.
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To return to the comparison with human asthma, when trying to understand the underlying causes it is important to differentiate between asthma (constriction of the bronchi), chronic bronchitis (oversecretion of mucus with a chronic cough) and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Asthma is reversible bronchial constriction caused by eosinophil cells, whereas COPD is irreversible bronchial constriction involving neutrophil cells.
- Radiography The next test performed is usually thoracic radiography.
- This is best performed under general anesthetic so there is lee chance for motion blur, though in acute situations this is not possible.
- This is where the most meaningful information can be gained.
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Bronchodilator drugs used in inhalers include Salbutamol and Salmeterol. Salbutamol is very fast acting and therefore useful in a crisis caused by spasm of the bronchi. However, it only lasts for about 30 minutes and is therefore unsuitable for chronic therapy as frequent dosing is required. Salmeterol on the other hand is longer acting, and lasts for about 12 hours so twice daily dosing is possible. Salmeterol is better for long term control of mild to moderate asthma while Salbutamol is better for relief of acute bronchospasm.
Diagnosis 1. Clinical examination The first step in the diagnostic protocol is a thorough clinical examination by a veterinarian. This should localize the origin of the disease to the upper airways, lower airways or pleural space. If the cat is found to have pleural disease, a needle may be inserted straight away to remove either air or a sample of the effusion for both diagnosis and short term treatment of the respiratory distress. Having a penchant for Bronchitis led us to write all that there has been written on Bronchitis here. Hope you too develop a penchant for Bronchitis!
Pulmonary EdemaOften due to severe heart disease.Infectious bronchitis. This can be due to bacteria, viruses or parasites.Pleural disease. Filling of the space between the lung and the chest wall with air or an effusion.Cancer. This can be a primary lung tumor or metastatic spread.Potassium bromide induced respiratory disease. A side effect from an anti-epileptic drug.Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Responds poorly to treatment.Pulmonary thromboembolus. Lodging of a clot in a respiratory blood vessel causing sudden onset breathing difficulty.Pulmonary hypertension. Usually secondary to other heart or respiratory disease.
Bronchoalveolar LavageThis is similar to the technique described above, but the catheter is inserted all the way into a lower airway before the saline is injected and withdrawn. This is therefore a good test for lower airway disease. There has been an uncalculatable amount of information added in this composition on Bronchitis. Don't try counting it!
Aerosol therapy has the advantage that the maximum concentration of drug is delivered to the target site. This means that lower overall doses can be used, and the cat is less likely to suffer the negative side effects of steroids. Various inhalers can be used in both cats and dogs, but they tend to be designed for humans. As a result, higher doses are given compared with human medicine, as humans can be instructed to breathe deeply whereas cats will breathe normally at best.
The Seretide Evohaler is useful for cats requiring both steroid and bronchodilator therapy. It contains salbutamol and fluticasone, a combination allowing minimal dosing frequency. We can proudly say that there is no competition to the meaning of Infectious Bronchitis, when comparing this article with other articles on Infectious Bronchitis found on the net.
Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy allows visualization of the larger airways, and assessment for increased mucus and inflammation. 4. Tracheal wash This involves injecting a small amount of saline into the trachea and immediately withdrawing it, and then examining the cells and debris harvested under a microscope. We would like you to leisurely go through this article on Infectious Bronchitis to get the real impact of the article. Infectious Bronchitis is a topic that has to be read clearly to be understood.
Cats usually present with one or all the following signs: CoughingWheezingDifficulty breathing A minority of cases will have the classic human status asthmaticus, rapid onset breathing difficulty due to severe narrowing of the bronchi. Cats tend to be middle aged or older, and Siamese cats may be more prone than other breeds. There is a lot of jargon connected with Bronchitis. However, we have eliminated the difficult ones, and only used the ones understood by everyone.